Churchill Island is located on the northeast side of Phillip Island and covers an area of 5.7ha. The island was once part of the country of the Yallock bullunck clan of the Boon wurrung people. The first recorded European to visit Churchill Island was British Royal Navy navigator James Grant of the Lady Nelson in 1801. The land was privately owned until 1976 when the Victorian Conservation Trust bought it.
Site surveys of the majority of the island were undertaken by ArchLink staff throughout December 2014. The survey was undertaken to ensure all archival and desktop assessments were accurate as well as locating and recording the presence of archaeological sites and potential areas of archaeological sensitivity. Many shards of glass bottles and ceramic vessels were located along the coastline of the island as well as original piles and footings of extant jetties and bridge.